Life of Bill Gates

Entrepreneur, businessman and great philanthropist , Bill Gates and his partner Paul Allenfounded built the world’s largest software business, Microsoft, through technological innovation along with its keen business strategies. This lift him to the peak of richness.

Bill Gates and Microsoft

In 1975, Bill Gates and Paul Allen formed Micro-Soft, a blend of “micro-computer” and “software”. With his awareness for software development and business sense, he led the company from the front. He personally used to write and assemble every necessary source code which he finds to get redefined.

Following the development of software for IBM, between 1979 and 1981 Microsoft’s growth increased tremendously and revenue shot up from $2.5 million to $16 million.
In March 1986, Bill Gates took Microsoft public with an initial public offering (IPO) of $21 per share, making him an instant millionaire at age 31. Gates held 45 percent of the company’s 24.7 million shares, making his stake at that time $234 million on the other hand Microsoft’s $520 million.

Entrepreneur and Businessman

Bill Gates’ intelligence allowed him to be able to see all sides of the software industry—product development and corporate strategy.

Despite the success of Microsoft, Bill Gates never get satisfied on the current success . He developed white-hot drive and competitive spirit. He expected everyone in the company to have the same dedication. His confrontational management style also became legend, as he would challenge employees and their ideas to keep the creative process going.
Outside the company, Bill Gates was crossing several peak feats of a reputation as a ruthless competitor. Gates pushed ahead with the Windows software, improving its operation and expanding its uses. In 1989, Microsoft introduced Microsoft Office, which bundled office productivity applications such as Microsoft Word and Excel into one system that was compatible with all Microsoft products. Microsoft’s new version of Windows sold 100,000 copies in just two weeks. This left Microsoft with a virtual monopoly on operating systems for PCs.

Global impacts of Microsoft
From last 4 decades, Microsoft has been in existence and maintained their empire in Software industries.

  • Microsoft invented the smartphone and tablet

Scratch your head in confusion as much as you want, but this is legitimately true. Microsoft was the first company to highlight the smartphone and tablet. It did so with Windows CE, Pocket PC, and Windows Mobile.

  • Microsoft changed the way we use computers

Computers decades ago were too complicated for the everyday man, but Microsoft went ahead and changed the game by making PCs. Now Microsoft is hoping to change things again with the announcement of HoloLens, a personal holographic computer housed over the eyes.

The Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation

In 1994, Bill and Melinda Gates established the William H. Gates Foundation, which was dedicated to supporting education, world health and investment in low-income communities. With Melinda’s influence, Bill had taken an interest in becoming a civic leader in the footsteps of his mother, studying the philanthropic work of American industrial titans and a richest Entrepreneur turns into great Philanthropist

The organisation tackles international and domestic issues. In 2015, Gates spoke out in favour of national Common Core standards in grades K through 12 and charter schools. The foundation announced that it would give its employees a year’s paid leave after the birth or the adoption of a child.

In 2017, the foundation launched first report, on examination of progress made in several important areas related to public health, including child mortality, malnutrition and HIV. At the time, he came to know infectious and chronic disease as the two biggest public health concerns that needed to be addressed over the coming decade.
In April 2018, Gates announced that he was teaming with Google co-founder Larry Page to provide $12 million in funding for a universal flu vaccine.

– Abhishek Mirgude

Depreciation of Rupee

On Oct. 09, the rupee closed below the Rs74.3 per dollar mark for the first time ever. The news that the Indian economy grew at a sprightly 8.2% in the April-June period, the highest in nine quarters, provided some cushion

As we know that the value of rupee against the dollar is continuously depreciating. Today you all will get to know why is it happening and this is an important thing that every Indian should know.
Here are some reasons for the rupee’s incessant slide.

International Trade
In International Trade, the US dollar is the main currency and to pay imports’ bill, India needs to buy a dollar. This increases the demand of dollar in the market. Hence when the imports are more than exports, then there is a need to buy more dollars to pay the imports’ bill while on another side due to lesser exports, India is earning fewer dollars. Currently, the outflow of dollars is greater than the inflow. This thing is not good for Indian Rupee.

Crude prices
In the past many weeks, international crude oil price, which had stabilized in the April-June quarter, has been on the rise again. Currently, the crude oil futures were trading above $80 per barrel. Considering that India imports nearly 81% of its fuel needs, rising oil prices leads to a higher dollar bill which, in turn, weakens the rupee.

Current account deficit
When a country’s import is more than its export then it is called as Current account deficit. Current account deficit is bad for any country’s economic progress. Rising oil prices and a weakening rupee mean that India’s current account deficit may widen to 2.8% of the GDP this financial year, up from 1.9% last year. This year, the deficit has already jumped to a nearly five-year high of $18 billion. Besides Crude oil, India heavily imports electronic goods. Also, compared to the imports, India exports lesser goods. This only adds further pressure on the rupee.

International developments
The situation in Turkey is taking a toll on currencies of the emerging markets. The Turkish lira has already lost over 40% of its value this year. Last month, the US imposed higher tariffs on imports of steel, aluminium, and other commodities from Turkey. Besides the US-Turkey confrontation, there is also the bigger US-China trade war brewing. The two countries have also been increasing duties on each other’s goods. Some observers view this as the beginning of a new Cold War. This situation increases the value of goods in the international market and this leads to an increase in India’s imports bill and hence depreciation of rupee.

Passive RBI
Typically, when the rupee weakens, the Reserve Bank of India sells dollars from its reserves to rescue it. So far, though, the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) has not intervened aggressively to shore up the domestic currency.
But this time, the intensity of RBI’s intervention has dissipated. While there is complete lack of communication between RBI , officials from the government and quasi-government agencies .

US economy
The dollar is having a good run this year due to an uptick in the US’s GDP numbers. That country’s economy grew 4.1% in the second quarter of this year, the fastest since late 2014. It has also been adding more jobs, while average wages have picked up, too.
By all indications, most of these global cues are unlikely to change much in the immediate future. So businesses and individuals in India need to brace themselves.

– Abhishek R. Pawar

Tale of three countries – India, Russia and USA.


Today for India, in this 21st century, advancement in defence technology is not an option-it is necessity. The India-Russia S-400 Missiles deal that was announced during 8th BRICS summit in Goa is a staggering success that Indian defence system is about to achieve. This surface to air defence missile system deal is a game changer for Indian army.

S-400 Triumf air defence system is developed by Almaz Central Design Bureau, a Russian company. Under this deal, India will be procuring five new generation Russian S-400 triumf air defence missile systems along with other defence equipments. Apart from it, India also announced to collaborate in making four stealth frigates out of which two frigates will be built in Russia and other two will be constructed at an Indian shipyard with Russian cooperation.  There’s more to this list, it will be also setting up a joint production facility for making two hundred Kamov (Ka – 226T ) helicopters, out of those sixty will be manufactured in Russia and the rest will be produced in India that will ultimately boost the Make in India project.

Features of S-400 triumf :

  1. The S-400 can neutralize the drones as well as ballistic and cruise missiles within a range of  400 kms up to an altitude of 32 kms.
  2. The system is equipped with three different types of missiles and radar capable of tracking up to 300 targets within the range of 600 kms ,creating a layered defence that can engage up to 36 targets simultaneously.
  3. It has a tracking range of 600 km and the ability to hit targets 400 km away at a blistering speed of 17,000 km an hour.

Well, it’s these features that makes S-400 almost invincible leading to an ecstatic interest of Indian defence system towards buying S-400. It’s missiles vigilantly bombarding into enemy aircraft can destroy adversaries interrupting in the Indian soil. It’s success rate of about ninety percent has totally left other countries flabbergasted.

Perhaps, it’s unlike a cake walk for Indian government to sign this deal with U.S.A’s cautionary warning, thus creating a deterrence, which if not taken into consideration might lead to sanctions on India imposed by the USA under CAATSA 2017.The Countering America’s Adversaries Through Sanctions Act (CAATSA) was a law setup by USA in 2017. Russia is already been sanctioned under this act ,which will lead to sanctioning of India, as according to this act any country buying defence equipments from adversaries of USA will be sanctioned too.

Recently,  ‘The Hindu’ had a headline “U. S admiral warned against sanctioning India over Russia defence purchase or given a waiver “ ,seems like the American government had studied the problem to depth as they might loose an important partner in Indian Ocean region to together combat with China, if sanctions are imposed. On the other hand it’s a growing concern for India that it might come under US sanctions related to CAATSA. This might not only hamper the growth of India but also put back India’s progress past seven to eight years . Leading to unabashedly besmirching the robustness of Indian economy and henceforth making it fragile enough for the citizens to sustain for livelihood. Not only this, but China will emerge out to be an undesirable host  stretching it’s arms to an extent to carve new borders.  Well the question that prevails between USA and Indian government is that ;Will the USA impose sanctions on India? Will India be offered a waiver? Will India be firm on it’s missile deal with Russia ?Will there be any changes in the deal?  .All these questions are impossible to answer firmly as they entirely depend on the diplomatic actions of both countries. Somewhere solution might conclude to, that the USA offers waiver to the India and that the India in return makes changes in the deal ,but again this might put both countries in trouble as the USA will be questioned by other countries over it’s partiality to offer waiver to India and not certain countries and hence CAATSA will no longer be enacted or respected ; on the other hand  the only change the India can make in deal is that it won’t sign for 200 Kamov (Ka-226T) helicopters which won’t allow the Make in India project to achieve marvel set up by the policy makers.

APJ Abdul Kalam once said,

“ Unless India stands up to the world, no one will respect us, In this world, fear has no place, only strength respects strength.”

And so, the Indian Government is taking challenging paths so as to make the nation feel the exhilaration of victory. The India-Russia S-400 missiles deal is an alibi for India’s stupendous progress and investment  in defence sector. India’s this move will not only ensure that the power of our nation sounds unimpeachable and unassailable, but will also frame an answer for those who are keeping an evil eye on Indian soil especially Pakistan and China. This deal might be a paradigm for those coming generation in nascent years. The USA’s warning to India for putting sanctions was an insult to the  Indian sovereignty, it was a mere step taken to create deterrence for India’s policy makers. Of course the nation won’t shun away these difficulties but rather think of a strategically diplomatic way to solve it. In the upcoming years India will work hard to ensure that it’s relationship with both the countries, the USA as well as the Russia resonate and move towards progress so as to maintain safety of it’s citizens .

– Kanupriya. V. Shelke